PAMELA Equipment
The concept of the PAMELA is to have a pedestrian space which is fully configurable so that real-world conditions can be replicated in controlled setting.  The centre point of this concept is the PAMELA platform. Its construction has undergone a couple of iterations, all funded by the EPSRC. The latest phase is detailed by Babcock here.

It consists of 58 modules which are 1.2m x 1.2m, wirelessly controlled, and with interchangeable surfaces. Each module can slope in any direction, up to a maximum of 20%. Street furniture, such as obstacles and amenities, can be arranged on the platform with carefully designed lighting to simulate conditions from daylight to darkness.


Sound System​

The PAMELA sound system provides ambient noise effects using sophisticated phase array speakers and localised sounds using a set of smaller speakers which can be positioned where required within the 2,400m3 facility. The phase-array system enables the sound to be delivered in the form of a ‘disc’ rather than the more conventional cone which radiates in all directions from a single-point source.

This enables us to place the sound very precisely where desired. The figure shows how the sound is being directed in a narrow band (red = high intensity, blue = low intensity) towards the wall in such a way that the concentration is over the platform (the rectangle) – the height above the platform is adjustable – normally it is about 1.3m above the platform surface.

The sound is reflected back from the wall underneath the platform thus eliminating the need for costly acoustic treatment of the building. The ambisonic control of the sound enables us to ‘move’ the sound around the building: in this way we can generate effects of moving people, vehicles, trains and aircraft.

 



Biomechanics
Ergometer & Wheelchair biomechanics:

The ergometer consists of two instrumented freely rolling drums. The drums resistance can be adjusted and measured and their velocity also recorded. This system is often used in conjunction with the following pieces of equipment:
  • Smartwheel, which measures 3D forces and moments applied to a wheelchair handrim;
  • Xsens Xbus kit, which consists of 5 sensors that measure orientation and acceleration in 3-dimensions.
  • Trigno system, which measures 3D acceleration and EMG
  • Heart rate
All of these systems are recorded and synchronised through National Instruments hardware and Labview software.
 
 
 
Gait​ ​
Gait analysis is achieved through a mixture of basic and more complex equipment. At the most basic foot switches are used at the more complex the following are used:
  • F-scan system, which is an in-shoe plantar pressure analysis system. It can quantify force, contact pressure distribution, and timing;
  • GRIP system, which measures and evaluates static and dynamic pressures from grasping objects;
  • Xsens Xbus kit, which consists of 5 sensors that measure orientation and acceleration in 3-dimensions.
  • Trigno system, which measures 3D acceleration and EMG.

 


 
Eye-Tracking​ ​
We are currently using the SMI Eye Tracking Glasses (ETG) to measure eye movements.

ETG is a non-invasive video based glasses-type eye tracker with integrated audio recording. It includes an HD scene camera and special eye tracking technology that captures the eye movements.
Lighting System
​A computer controlled variable lighting system is used to simulate street and residential area lighting conditions.

This consists of programmable solid state LEDs, fluorescent, ceramic discharge, halogen, high and low pressure sodium lamps.